Soil compaction-a simple, trouble-free solution
Why does soil compaction occur? What are the consequences after soil compaction, and what to do after soil compaction occurs.
Minerals: Generally speaking, it is the fragments (primary minerals) formed by the fragmentation of rocks by weathering, and also includes some new detrital substances formed after some chemical reactions (ie, chemical weathering) of these fragments in the natural environment.
They are mainly inorganic salts, such as silicate minerals, oxide minerals, kaolinite and so on. Mainly some particles, debris and stones, which can increase some of the water permeability and air permeability of the soil.
Organic matter: In layman's terms, it is the organic matter formed after the decomposition of various animal and plant residues, mainly to provide soil fertility. For example, humus soil, grass charcoal soil, etc., contain very high organic matter content.
1. Causes of soil compaction
When the composition of the various components in the soil structure is uniform and reasonable, the water permeability, water retention, and fertility of the soil are relatively good, and it will not be compacted. It is a good planting soil.
However, with the planting process, the absorption of plants and the improper operation of some people will cause serious lack or destruction of various certain components, so various problems such as soil compaction and poor water retention and permeability will occur.
Pay close attention to you and you will find that most of the ordinary soil made from farmland has relatively high viscosity, poor permeability and water retention, and it is prone to compaction. The main reason is that the composition of the soil has been destroyed to a certain extent, and the organic matter and mineral content in it are relatively small.
The purchased nutrient soil is relatively difficult to compact, mainly because it is prepared according to some composition ratios, and the various components are relatively uniform and reasonable.
For example, when chemical fertilizers are frequently applied, some nitrates in the fertilizers can easily react with some cations in the soil (mainly some inorganic salts in minerals), destroy its soil structure, and cause soil compaction;
For example, after the soil has been planted many times, the organic matter in it is severely lacking, causing the soil structure to be unbalanced, and it is also easy to cause soil compaction;
For example, flood irrigation, due to gravity pressure, the air in the soil is easily squeezed out. The soil is in an oxygen-deficient environment. Some root systems and soil microorganisms will die due to lack of oxygen, and the aggregate structure of the soil is easily destroyed, causing soil compaction. .
2. What harm does soil compaction cause to vegetables?
The main hazards are these two aspects:
(1) Poor water permeability and air permeability: Poor water permeability makes it difficult for water to penetrate into the roots and cause plants to dry out due to lack of water; poor air permeability can easily lead to hypoxia in the roots, which can lead to root rot or affect root respiration, thereby affecting nutrients Absorption;
(2) Lead to nutrient deficiency disease: that is, the plant lacks certain elements and some malnutrition occurs, such as discoloration, deformity, and plant death in severe cases.
3. So what should we do after soil compaction occurs?
In fact, it can be dealt with according to these two methods: mitigation and improvement
When plants are planted in the soil, it is certainly not convenient to replace with new soil or add soil to mix and improve, so some small measures or techniques can be used to alleviate the impact of soil compaction on vegetables.
For example, frequent soil loosening can increase the water permeability and air permeability of the soil, and can also alleviate the compaction of the soil and reduce the impact and harm of compaction on vegetables;
For example, if you change the watering method, you can change the flood irrigation → sprinkle irrigation during normal watering, which can reduce the impact of improper watering methods on the soil and also help alleviate soil compaction;
For example, tap the wall of the pot, hold the pot with one hand, and pat around the flower pot with the other hand, use continuous oscillation to loosen the compacted pot soil, and then use a small tool to loosen the pot soil evenly along the flower pot;
For example, applying some organic fertilizers can help increase soil organic matter, increase fertility, and also have a great effect on improving soil compaction.
Various mitigation measures can only alleviate, but cannot completely solve the problem of compaction.
Most of the soil compaction needs to be replaced or modified (that is, mixed with new soil to improve).
Either you just plant the vegetables a few times and then change the soil and throw it away, but this is wasteful.
So the best way is to improve the soil, that is, to add some new soil components to the old soil to improve the soil.
When the soil is improved, two new soils are mainly added:
On the one hand, add some soil rich in organic matter, such as humus soil, grass charcoal soil, etc., to increase soil fertility;
On the other hand, add some granular soil rich in mineral components, such as vermiculite, coarse sand, perlite, etc., to increase the permeability of the soil.
After the soil is modified, it is equivalent to preparing a new nutrient soil, which can be reused.